Persons of African Descent Associated with the Oldest House 2

Persons of African Descent Associated with the Oldest House

Persons of African Descent Associated with the Oldest House 3

The González Period (ca. 1720-1763)

As far as is known, the earliest inhabitants of the Oldest House held no Africans in bondage. The González family lived at what today is 14 St. Francis Street from the 1720s till 1763. Tomás González y Hernandez was an artilleryman recently arrived from the Canary Islands. He was paid about 13% more that an infantryman. Still, he was not a rich man. [1] Slave owners in St. Augustine at this time were limited to the King, Crown officials, army officers, Roman Catholic priests, and a handful of wealthy landowners.

Of course, people of color were part of daily life for Tomás and his wife Maria Francisca Guevara y Domínguez. Her cousin Gregorio González, who lived next door in what is now the east half of the garden of the Oldest House, was the godfather of Lorenzo from the Congowho was enslaved by Juan del Pueyo. [2] Every day they would have seen indigenous Americans visiting the Franciscan Monastery across the street from their home. When on duty at the Castillo de San Marcos, Tomás would have come in contact with some of the Africans enslaved by the King who worked on building projects for the Spanish government. The Spanish including the González family, evacuated to Cuba when the British gained control of Florida in 1763. The English determined that the most cost effective way to develop the province was to use a large enslaved African workforce. Ship after ship brought slaves from South Carolina and directly from Africa. [3] Jesse Fish was a dealer in slaves as well as real estate. [4] Tomás González like many other Spaniards left his property in Fish’s hands.

The Peavett and Hudson Period (1775-1790)
In 1775, Joseph Peavett purchased the González house and lot from Fish. Peavett, a former Sergeant in the 60th Regiment of Foot, was a successful tavern-keeper and plantation owner. [5] To operate these businesses with his wife Mary (nee Evans, 1st husband Joseph Fenwick), he utilized enslaved Africans. At the beginning of the Second Spanish Period (1784-1821), Peavett was one of the largest slave owners in the province with 57 enslaved Africans and one White servant. Assuredly, most of these workers were on his several farms but some certainly were employed at the tavern he kept in the old González house.

When Joseph died in 1786 his widow Mary inherited all his property since he had no children. The wealthy widow soon remarried John Hudson. Shortly after their marriage, the census stated that they held in bondage 29 males and 17 females. About ten slaves must have been sold or died in the years 1784-1786.

John was a gambler and a drinker who squandered his wife’s fortune. By 1790, they were broke. Records of the bankruptcy sale give a great deal of insight into their enslaved workers. (See Appendix 1) The Africans controlled by John and Mary Hudson consisted of eight families and several unattached men. Two years later when both John and Mary had died, there was an inventory of the Africans still in her estate. (See Appendix 2) Some of these persons may have once lived at the Oldest House, but at the time of her death they were either at her New Waterford Plantation or her townhouse on Marine Street around the corner from the Oldest House.

Another rich source of data on the Africans enslaved by Mary Evans and her husbands is the Roman Catholic Church baptism records. These records give a glimpse into the religious life of slaves. The Roman Catholic Church encouraged slave masters to have their servants instructed in the Catholic faith and to be baptized. [6] Some of the people mentioned in Mary’s estate inventory appear in the church record too. (See Appendix 3)

The Alvarez Family (1790 till the Civil War)
Gerónimo Alvarez, an immigrant from the province of Asturias in northern Spain, purchased the Oldest House at the 1790 bankruptcy sale. Two years earlier, he had married to a local girl Antonia Vens. Her parents came from Minorca as indentured servants of Dr. Andrew Turnbull. According to the1786, 1787, and 1793 census records, Gerónimo owned two male slaves. [7] (See Appendix 4) Since at that time Gerónimo did not own outlying farms, these two men would have lived at the Oldest House or the adjoining property he owned on Marine Street. As enslaved men, they probably assisted Alvarez in his bakery.

One of the most unusual persons enslaved at the Oldest House was Agustina Alvarez. Agustina and her mother Juana were both enslaved by Geronimo Alvarez. Alvarez purchased Agustina (then known as Betsey) from Alberto Roye (sic Rollo) in 1798. [8] She was baptized at age 28 on November 1, 1808 with Geronimo’s daughter Teresa acting as godmother. She had three children by unknown fathers: Tomas Jose Elias Alvarez, born September 4, 1811; Paula Maria Nicolasa Alvarez, born March 2, 1815; and Maria Josepha Ciriaca Alvarez, born August 8, 1818. (See: appendix 7)

In October of 1815, Agustina Alvarez was sued for slander by Juan Jose Robles, a soldier stationed at Fort San Nicolas which guarded the cow ford in today’s Jacksonville. She was accused of calling him “a mulatto dog.” He testified that she was quarrelsome and had been thrown out of her residence four times. He wanted her punished for the injury to his reputation.

Several of their neighbors in San Nicolas accused her of even worse. Francisco Cortazar, a sub-lieutenant of the Third Battalion of Cuba, stated that he was familiar with Agustina Alvarez but he didn’t know about her habits. He saw Agustina approach Robles on the street with a stick in her hand, calling him a mulatto dog saying she had to clean up his dirt and that he was no better than her. Rachal Ann Hart said she heard her call Robles “a mulatto dog and a son of a bitch in English and Spanish.” She also said that both Alvarez and Robles were brandishing sticks. A free, mixed-race woman named Maria Dolores testified that she knew Agustina and knew nothing of her habits other than she had a scandalous reputation and that she had two children out of wedlock. Since most of the witnesses confirmed the details of the complaint against Agustina Alvarez by Juan Jose Robles, she was convicted of offenses against his honor. The court decreed, “…let it be known to the master of the offender [Geronimo Alvarez] that, through one of his domestic servants, he [Alvarez] will deliver upon her fifty lashes in his house, in the presence of the aggrieved person [Juan Jose Robles]….” Furthermore, the judgment shall be posted in a public location at Fort San Nicolas so that all shall know that the words of “a person of such low status” shall not tarnish the honor and esteem of Juan Jose Robles. James Cusick notes that the court was making an example of her due to her scandalous behavior: the punishment was out of the ordinary. [9]

In 1817, Agustina purchased the freedom of her children Thomas (for 200 pesos [10] ) and Paula (for 10 pesos  [11]) from Geronimo Alvarez. Agustina bought her own freedom from Geronimo Alvarez for 350 pesos on April 3, 1818. Her last child was born free. Agustina Alvarez died a free woman on September 3, 1819 and was buried in Tolomato Cemetery. (See: appendix 7) One has to wonder if Geronimo Alvarez, a politically savvy former Mayor of St. Augustine, aware of the conditions set forth in the Adams-Onís Treaty, realized that conditions for enslaved Africans were about to become much harsher under United States rule. Therefore, liberty for Agustina and her children was arranged prior to the end of Spanish rule in 1821.

Gerónimo and Antonia’s son Antonio Alvarez married in 1818 and had a career as a clerk for the final years of Spanish rule. In 1821, Antonio became “Keeper of the Public Archive” under the new U. S. Government. He was not listed as a slave owner in the 1830 census though by 1840, Antonio had three enslaved Africans. In 1839, Gerónimo divided his property, just six years before his 1846. Gerónimo keeps one third, one third is given to Antonio, and one third is given to the heirs of his daughter Teresa who had married Antonio Llambias. Antonio Alvarez received the Oldest House and probably some of his father’s enslaved Africans. In the 1850 census, he owned 13 slaves but since Antonio only had 3 slaves in 1840, it is possible the other 10 were owned by Antonio’s wife Eleutria Sabaté as part of her inheritance from her father Pablo Sabate along with the Casa Cola Plantation. [12] Interestingly, Gerónimo lived his final years in a house on St. George Street and as reported in the 1840 U. S. Census he held no one in bondage but several free persons of color lived with him (see Appendix 6).

Morton's 1867 sketch of the gardens at the Oldest House.

Morton’s 1867 sketch of the gardens at the Oldest House.

The Martin Tenancy (ca.1865-1882)
Mariano Martin, a man of mixed racial heritage, rented the Oldest House from the heirs of Antonio Alvarez who died in 1869. He was baptized Mariano Jose Triay on September 15, 1816 as a two-week old infant. His father was Bousin (Bosun?) who was enslaved by Martin Hernandez and his mother Maria was held by Gabriel Triay. Following the usual practice, he was recorded under the surname of his mother’s owner. [13] He and his family were bondmen of the Triay family until the Union captured St. Augustine in March of 1862 when they became contrabands.

“Contraband” was the legal status given to persons formerly enslaved by rebels. Because the army could confiscate property of rebels, this legal subterfuge allowed the U. S. Army to technically gain control of Black people, allowing it to feed, clothe, and employ them. Listed on the role of persons in St. Augustine receiving rations from the U. S. Army in November of 1864 are Mary Martin (age 54), Alex Martin (age 15), Margarett (sic) Martin (age 8), and Stephen Martin (age 12). They are recorded as contrabands formerly owned by Catherine (aka Catalina) Triay who was the sister of Mrs. Antonio Alvarez. [14]

Mariano (alias Samuel B. Chapman) [15] enlisted in the Company G, 33rd U.S. Colored Infantry on January 12, 1863 at Port Royal, South Carolina. By December of that year, he was the company cook. From June 3rd to the 11th he was in the General Hospital, Beaufort, South Carolina with smallpox. During November and December 1864, he was on detached duty on Coles Island near today’s Folly Beach, South Carolina. He was last paid on June 30, 1865 but not mustered out of the army until January 31, 1866. [16]

According to the 1880 Census, the Martin family was living in the Oldest House. He was a 67 year-old brick mason and his wife Mary took in laundry. His 21 year-old grandson James Williams who worked as a boatman lived with them. On the property in a separate structure was 21 year old Margaret Martin and a 13 year old daughter Mary Elizabeth Green and a two-month old baby named W. Mickens (?). [17] George Acosta sold the Oldest House on behalf of his late wife’s children in 1882. [18] By 1885, the Martin family was living around the corner on Charlotte Street.  It appears that Mariano Martin died sometime between the 1885 and 1899. [19] His wife Mary in recorded in the 1899 City Directory but he is not. [20]

Numerous people looking south on Charlotte Street from the corner of Bridge Street. C. 1880

South on Charlotte Street from the corner of Bridge Street. C. 1880

The Late 19th & Early 20th Centuries
A long established African American neighborhood existed on Charlotte Street adjacent to the Oldest House. Black families occupied nine of the sixteen homes on the block from Bridge Street to St. Francis Street, especially in the southern half of the block. Rev. James F. Elliott, the pastor of Trinity Methodist Church, lived at No. 267 where the historical society owns a rental property today. Where the historical society offices and the Page Edwards Gallery are today, Harriet Trotman, a widowed laundress resided. Mrs. Trotman lived at No. 269 Charlotte Street for many years until her death at age 109 in 1919. [21] Her neighbor at No. 271 was another widowed laundress named Sarah Murray. Other Black residents included: Luisa Crosby and Eloise Thomas, both laundresses, and Richard Weston, a laborer lived on the west side of Charlotte Street where the historical society parking lot is now. [22]

Beginning in the 1930s, the historical society under the management of W. J. Harris and his son J. Carver Harris began to acquire these properties. [23] This culminated in the 1960s with the demolition of the “negro shanties” for the construction of the Alexander-Garrido House and the Dunham Building which houses the historical society offices and the Page Edwards Gallery. [24]

Persons of African Descent Associated with the Oldest House 4

This photo shows the two story building at 267 and 269 Charlotte Street.

Judge James W. Henderson had hired an African American couple for many years as live-in caretakers at the Oldest House. On July 3, 1903 the front page headline in the St. Augustine Evening Record read, “Woman Fatally Shot by Her Husband.” The neighbors were not only awakened by the gunshot and screams of the victim Amelia Williams, but also by the cries of her half-dressed husband Joe Williams proclaiming, “It was an accident!” Dr. Daniel Roberts, the local African American physician, was immediately called to the scene. He discovered the shot had entered Amelia Williams’ intestines and the steel ribs of her corset had entered her body. The coroner C. E. Mackey, who lived nearby on Marine Street, was able to get statements from Mr. & Mrs. Williams who both said it was an accident. Nevertheless, Joe Williams was arrested and taken to the city jail. At first, his wife was taken to Dr. Robert’s office on Bridge Street and then transferred to Alicia Hospital where she died. Joe Williams had been drinking and he told the newspaper reporter, “I was about to retire and went to put the gun where I usually keep it. I attempted to put it on half cock and pulled the hammer up too far and it went off, the load striking my wife.” The next morning, he was brought before the municipal judge who concluded that there were no grounds to hold him. [25] Amelia Williams died two days later and was buried in San Sebastian Cemetery. [26] With this sad story, the tale of Black people who actually lived at the Oldest House came to an end.

More to Learn
There may be yet undiscovered stories of African Americans associated with 14 St. Francis Street. Dr. & Mrs. Carver certainly had servants during their occupancy (1884-1899). The historical society acquired the house in 1918 and since then has employed several African Americans at the Oldest House Museum Complex. Their stories may reveal new insight into this National Historic Landmark.

This photo shows a man holding a plant inside the Oldest House greenhouse. The following was hand written on the back of the photo: Andrew McMille in greenhouse west of restrooms.

Historical Society Assistant Garnder Andrew McMille in the Society’s greenhouse in 1959.

End Notes

[1] Parker,  Susan Richbourg. “Homes for Four Generations (c. 1660-1763): The Historical Society’s Property on St. Francis Street.” El Escribano, Volume 54 (2017): 108.

[2] Wilson, Emily, Cathedral Parish Records: Baptisms, Marriages, and Deaths, Pardos, Morenos, Indians, etc. 1735-1763,

[3] Landers, Jane. Black Society in Spanish Florida. Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999. 66-67.

[4] Landers, Jane. 269-274.

[5] Waterbury, Jean Parker. The Gonzalez-Alvarez Oldest House, the Place and Its People. St. Augustine, FL: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1984. 12, 13.

[6] Landers, Jane, 116-117.

[7] Mills, Donna Rachal, Florida’s First Families: Translated Abstracts of the Pre-1821 Spanish Censuses. Tuscaloosa, AL & Naples FL: Mills Historical Press, 1992, 9, 39, 69.

[8] East Florida Papers, Reel 167. Geronimo Alvarez’ manumission of Agustina (aka Betsey) April 3, 1818.

[9]Dr. James G. Cusick, Direct email message to the author, January 28, 2021.

[10] East Florida Papers, Reel 167, No.5-6, page 146. Geronimo Alvarez’ manumission of Thomas son of Augustina

[11] East Florida Papers, Reel 167, No. 6, pages 4873-4874. Geronimo Alvarez’ manumission of Paula, daughter of Augustina.

[12]“Obituary of Pablo Sabate, Sr..” Florida Herald, May 1, 1834, 3.

[13]Cathedral Parish Records, Black Baptisms, Book 3. Entry 305, page 141.

[14] “Census” Department of the South, November, 1864 for Jacksonville, Fernandina, and St. Augustine, Florida published by the Florida State Genealogical Society, Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc. 2002.  220. See also Waterbury, Jean Parker, 28.

[15] “” Access January 27, 2021.

[16] Thomas Graham, email direct message to author, August 7, 2020.

[17]1880 U. S. Census, St. Augustine, St. Johns County, Florida. 34.

[18] Waterbury, Jean Parker, 28.

[19]1885 Florida State Census, St. Augustine, St. Johns County, Florida, 6.

[20]Monteith, Roberta H. 1899 City Directory of St. Augustine. Historic Properties Inventory, Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board, May1, 1979, 14.

[21]“Death of Aged Colored Woman.” St. Augustine Evening Record, October 19, 1919, 4.

[22]St. Augustine City Guide, 1914-1915. Jacksonville: R. L. Polk & Co., 1914

[23]St. Augustine, St. Johns County, Florida. New York City: Sanborn Map Company, 1930 and update to 1947, 13.

[24] Wiles, Doris. “History of the site of the new Saint Augustine Historical Society Library Building” El Escribano, Vol. 1, no. 52, July 1964: 19.

[25]“Woman Fatally Shot by Husband,” St. Augustine Evening Record, July 3, 1903, 1.

[26] “Funeral of Amelia Williams,” St. Augustine Evening Record, July 7, 1903, 5.


Appendix 1

1790: from John Hudson bankruptcy documents:

Total 35: 24 males & 11 females

Family #1
Male: Kent, age 60
His wife: Febe, age 55

Family #2
Male: Tony, age 32
His wife: Sally, age 30
His son: James, age 5
His daughter: Kate, age 3
His son: Tom, age 2

Family #3
Male: Sam, age 60
His wife: Nani, age 41
His son: Kent, age10
His son: Tuesday, age 8
His son, Seve, age 6
His son: Tyro, age 2
His daughter: Betty, age 10

Family #4
Female: Lusy (sic Lucy), age60
Her son: Tony, age 12
Her son: Villy, age 10

Family #5
Male: Shaper (sic Sharper), age 60
His wife: Febe, age 50
His daughter: Liba, age 16

Family # 6
Male: Syrus, age 60
His wife: Silla, age 50

Family #7
Male: Job, age 60
His wife: Mary, age 40
His daughter: Nany, age 14
His son: Febe, age 5,
His son: Job, age 4
His son: Dario, age 1

Family #8
Man: Marzo, age 45
His wife: Flora, age 40

Male: Oespenda ?, age 60 [this line is crossed out]
Male: York, age 50
Male: Abraham, age 70

Unattached men
Male: Guinea Sam, 50
Male: Congo, 40
Male: Trompeter, 18
Male: Abraham, 40

Appraised value of Hudson’s slaves

Sam, and his wife, and two children, Seve and Tiro———————————-600 pesos
350 peso

Kent, son of aforementioned, young boy ———————————————-225 pesos-

Tuesday, young boy————————————————————————–160 pesos

Betty, young girl ——————————————————————————150 pesos

Lusy (sic Lucy), woman, ———————————————————————80 pesos

Tony and his son, a young boy————————————————————200 pesos

Villy, and his son also ———————————————————————–160 pesos

Sharper, his wife, Febe (in English Phoebe) ——————————————–300 pesos

Luba, daughter of the aforementioned: ————————————————–240 pesos

Cyrus, sawyer, and his wife Silla ———————————————————-325 pesos

Job, and Maria Pevet (sic Peavett) and their children Job, David, —————-400 pesos

Nany, daughter of the aforesaid ———————————————————–170 pesos

York, sawyer, ———————————————————————————–250 pesos

Abraham, sawyer, —————————————————————————–280 pesos

Marzo (aka March), and his wife Flora —————————————————350 pesos

Trompeter, young boy ————————————————————————225 pesos

Slave Auction Sales

To Martin Hernandez: the black male Sirus,(aka Cyrus) an his Wife (Silla)—-333 pesos

To Francisco Pellicer: the black male Marzo (aka March) and his wife Flora –287 pesos

Appendix 2

1792 Inventory of the Estate of Mary Evans:

Total 18
Family #1: Zambo, male (age 30), Pender, female (age 40), Sisason of Zambo & Pender (age 16), Juan son of Zambo & Pender (age 12)
Family #2: Jose, male (age about 50), Maria wife of Jose (age about 40) with baby, Nancy daughter of Jose & Maria (age 17) with baby, Jose son of Jose & Maria ( age about 12), David son of Jose & Maria, (age bout 7)
Family #3: Pender female (age about 70), Chaels [sic Charles] male (age about 55, Juan Jamblent male (age about 40), Peter male (age about 70), Congo male (age about 40), Ebron [Abram] male (age about 40), Maria female ( age about 70), Fibi, female ( age about 75)

There was also afree Black nurse attending her in her final days.

1793 Sale of the effects of Mary Evans:

November 26, 1793: sale of 15 black slaves

To Francisco Palicer (sic Pellicer): one black female named Gender—————260 Pesos
To the same: her son named Cezar (sic César or Caesar) —————————–286 Pesos
To Juan Tate (John Edward Tate): a black male named Juan ————————104 Pesos
To Guillermo MacEnery acting for Tomas Travers: a family comprised of a father, mother, and four children: named Jose, Maria with a suckling child, Jose, Fiby, and David ———————————————————————————————-740 Pesos
To the same for the same: another black female with suckling child of the same family named Nancy: 31 years old ——————————————————————-301 Pesos
To Bartolome Castro y Ferrer: one black female named Pinder and her son Sambo—381 Pesos
To Juan Tate: one black male named Charles ——————————————-202 Pesos
To the same: one black male named Congo ———————————————-346 Pesos

Total for the sale of the enslaved blacks————————————————–2620 Pesos

[Those] that have bought their own freedom
For the black male Sambo ——————————————————————–250 Pesos
For the black male Abram ——————————————————————–280 Pesos

Appendix 3

Roman Catholic baptisms of Mary Evan’s slaves

August 18, 1787: Juan (John) Hudson (age 4), father Sambo, mother Pinder: all slaves of John Hudson & Mary Evans***
June 18, 1793: Joseph Evans (age 10), father Joseph Evans** (of USA), mother Maria Peavet(of USA): all slaves of heirs of Mary Evans
June 18, 1793: Isabel Evans (age 8), father Joseph Evans, mother Maria Peavet: slaves of heirs of Mary Evans
June 18, 1793: Maria Evans (age 10 months), father Joseph Peavet (of USA), mother Maria (of USA): all slaves of the heirs of Mary Evans
June 18, 1793: Santiago Evans (Moreno age 3 weeks), father Joseph Sanchez (of USA), mother Anna Peavet (of USA): all slaves of the heirs of Mary Evans

Appendix 4

Slaves owned by Geronimo Alvarez as recorded in the Spanish and U. S. Censuses

1793: Geronimo Alvarez & Antonia Vens:
2 males, not baptized (he had 2 males in 1786 prior to getting married or buying the Oldest House)

1830: Geronimo Alvarez: (his wife Antonia had died)
1 male (age 0-10),
1 male (age 24-36),
5 females age (0-10),
2 females (age 10-24),
3 females (age 24-36)

1840: Household of Geronimo Alvarez: two Free Persons of Color and himself
1 male (aged 10-24),
1 male (age 80-90), Geronimo Alvarez
1 female (age 10-24)

Appendix 5

Slaves owned by Antonio Alvarez as recorded in U. S. Censuses of St. Johns County, Florida

1840: 16 total
1 male, aged 55-100
5 males, age 36-55
2 males, aged 10-24
3 males, aged under 10
1 female, aged 24-36
2 females, aged 10-24
2 females, aged under 10

1850: 10total:
1 black male (age 50),
1 black male (age 50),
1 mulatto male (age 31),
1 black male (age 16),
1 black female (age 18),
1 black female (age15),
1 black male (age 10),
1 black male (age 8),
1 black female (age19),
1 black female (age 3)

1860: 8total:
1 black male (age 26),
1 black male (age 11),
1 black male (age 9),
1 black male ( age 8),
1 male (age 3),
1 female (age 50),
1 mulatto female age 12,
1 female (age 45)

So called “Census” Department of the South, November, 1864 for Jacksonville, Fernandina, and St. Augustine, Florida published by the Florida State Genealogical Society, Heritage Books, Inc. 2002

Agnes Clark; 5 ft., 4 in.; eyes black; complexion black; are 29, Contraband; St. Augustine; former owner A. Alvers (sic)
Abby Alveraz (sic); age 50; Contraband; former owner Alveraz (sic); an old resident of St. Augustine

Appendix 6

Household of Geronimo Alvarez: 1840 U. S Census of St. Johns County, Florida

1 free White, aged 80-90 (Geronimo himself)
1 free Black Male, aged 10-24
3 free Black females aged under 10
3 free Black females, aged 10-24

Appendix 7

Roman Catholic Church records for persons enslaved by Geronimo Alvarez


Catalina Hilaria Alvarez, baptized 3-19-1832, parda, two months old, father: Jack Ebram (free), mother Rosa Alvarez, enslaved by Geronimo Alvarez

Pablo, baptized 1832, father:Marelino Jose Espinosa y Alvarez, mother: Rosa Espinosa (free)

Frederico Rafael Alvarez y Espinosa, (free)baptized 10-23-1821, born 7-13, 1821, father: Pablo slave of Geronimo Alvarez, mother: Rosa Espinosa (free)

Pedro Pasual Alvarez, pardo, baptized 10-30-1807, born 10-23-1807, father: unknown, mother: Juana enslaved by Geronimo Alvarez

Luis Lorenzo Capella, pardo, baptized 5-11-1801, born 5-6-1801, father: Luis Capella (White), mother: Juana enslaved by Geronimo Alvarez

Guillermo Lorenzo Alvarez, baptized 6-5-1802, born 1-7-1802, Moreno, father: Diego (slave of Susana Ferguson), mother Juana (slave of Geronimo Alvarez)

Maria Gonzalez, baptized 2-9-1806, 23 years old, native of south Carolina, father: Thomas,moreno enslaved by Pedro Cosifacio, mother: Juana,moreno, enslaved by Geronimo Alvarez

Agustina Mariana Alvarez, baptized 11-1-1808, freemoreno, 28 years old, father: unknown, mother: Juana Alvarez (Godmother Teresa Alvarez Geronimo’s daughter)

Tomas Jose Elias Alvarez, baptized 9-16-1811, born 9-4-1811, pardo, father unknown, mother Agustina Alvarez

Francisco Antonio Alvarez, baptized 11-4-1823, born 4-2-1823, father: unknown, mother: Rosa ,parda slave of Geronimo Alvarez, godmother was the pardaPetrona Alvarez

Maria Josepha Ciriaca Alvarez, baptized 8-21-1818, born 8-8-1818, a free parda, father: unknown, mother Agustina Alvarez a free morena

Paula Maria Nicolasa, baptized 11-22, 1815, born 3-2-1815, parda, father: unknown, mother: Maria Agustina [Alvarez] enslaved by Geronimo Alvarez


Juana Alvarez, baptized at the point of death 4-5-1815, 42 years old, buried in Tolomato Cemetery

Agustina Mariana Alvarez, died 93, 1819, moreno, (free, formerly enslaved by Geronimo Alvarez) buried in Tolomato Cemetery

Appendix 8

Roman Catholic Church Records of Blacks associated with Antonio Alvarez


Calixto Alvarez, baptized 10-23-1845, born 10-14-1845, father Isaac enslaved by Antonio Alvarez, mother Abby enslaved by Antonio Alvarez

Cecilia Alvarez, baptized [no day & month but just prior to May 13th] 1847, born 2-1-1846, father unknown, mother Raegina (sic), enslaved by Antonio Alvarez

Appendix 9

St. Johns County Circuit Court Records

Harrieta Alvarez (enslaved by Geronimo Alvarez) married to John Solana, June 15, 1839
Civil Marriage license: St. Johns County Circuit Court record: Box 197, folder 144. Note says they were married by a priest but Roman Catholic Church record could not be located.

Appendix 10

East Florida Papers:
1819:8, 2 1022-2 1023. June 17th 1819
From Jose Montoro
To Geronimo Alvarez
Sale of Slave: Don Jose Montoro, resident of this city, promise to sell to Don Geronimo Alvares(sic), also a resident, his negro slave named Lucas, aged 12 years, the same one purchased from Dom Tomas de Aguilar, in the presence of the Escribano November 13th 1819. …Testified to in the City of St. Augustine, Florida, June 17th, 1819 in the presence of Don Juan Sanches (sic), Don Pablo Fontane and DonBernardo Segui.
(signed) Jeronimo (sic) Alvarez
Don Pablo Fontane Juan de Entralgo, Escribano